Santa Clara County believes pregnant women should avoid using marijuana.
There’s just too much at stake to risk hurting your unborn child.
The research isn’t perfect, but there is evidence that marijuana can cause issues with your pregnancy and birth, and could create long-term problems for your child.
Our goal is healthy moms and healthy kids. You will decide what is best for you and your child. We hope the following information helps.
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (July 2015).
Marijuana Use during pregnancy and lactation.
American College of Pediatricians (April 2017).
Marijuana Use: Detrimental to youth.
Allshouse A., Conway D., Goldenberg R., Dudley D., Hogue C., Metz T., Saade G., Silver R., and Varner M. (October 2017).
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Abdel-Latif M., Chomchai C., Clews S., Falconer J., Feller J., Henshcke P., Jacques S., Kingsbury A., Oei J. (2014). Cannabis, the pregnant woman and her child: weeding out the myths. Journal of Perinatology, June 2014.
Astley S. (2018). Smoking pot while pregnant is not a good idea. Seattle Times, May 1, 2018. https://www.seattletimes.com/opinion/smoking-pot-while-pregnantis-not-a-good-idea/
Baker T., Datta P., Rewers-Felkins K., Thompson H., Kallem R., Hale T., (May 2018).Transfer of inhaled cannabis into human breast milk. Obstetrics & Gynecology, May 2018, 131:5, 783-788.
Behnke, M. (March 2013). Prenatal substance abuse: Short- and long-term effects on the exposed fetus. Pediatrics, 131:3, 1009-1016.
Borgelt L., Brooks-Russell A., Crume T., Hall K., Juhl A., Wymore E., (June 2018).
Cannabis Use During the Perinatal Period in a State With Legalized Recreational and Medical Marijuana: The Association Between Maternal Characteristics, Breastfeeding Patterns, and Neonatal Outcomes. Journal of Pediatrics. https://www.jpeds.com/article/S0022-3476(18)30181-1/abstract
California Department of Public Health.
Centers for Disease Control (2017). What you need to know about marijuana use and pregnancy.
Center K., Christ C., Ehiri J., Gibbson S., Gunn J., Nunez A., Rosales C. (April 2016).
Prenatal exposure to cannabis and maternal and child health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/bmjopen/6/4/e009986.full.pdf
Chasnoff I., (Jan. 2017). Medical marijuana laws and pregnancy: implications for public health policy American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.
Chioma V., Frau R., Kalivas P., Melis M., Parolaro D., Rubino T., Spencer S., Zamberletti E. (Sept. 2015). New vistas on cannabis use disorder. Neuropharmacology
Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (2016).
Monitoring Health Concerns Related to Marijuana in Colorado 2016:Changes in Marijuana Use Patterns, Systematic Literature Review, and Possible Marijuana-Related Health Effects.
Cornelius J., Day N., Kim K., Richardson G., Sonon K. ( 2015). Prenatal marijuana exposure predicts marijuana use in young adulthood. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 47:10-15. doi:10.1016/j.ntt.2014.11.003.
Fantasia, H. (2017). Pharmacologic implications of marijuana use during pregnancy. Nursing for Women's Health. 21:3, 217-223, June- July, 2017.
Foeller M., Lyell D. (May 2017). Marijuana Use in Pregnancy: Concerns in an Evolving Era.
Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28498631
Hayatbakhsh M., Flenady V., Gibbons K., Kingsbury A., Hurrion E., Mamum A., Najman J. (2012).
Birth outcomes associated with cannabis use before and during pregnancy. Pediatric Research 71(2):215-19, February 2012. https://www.nature.com/articles/pr201125
Jew, C., Lu, H., Wu, C., (2011). “Lasting impacts of prenatal cannabis exposure and the role of endogenous cannabinoids in the developing brain.” Future Neurology. 6 (4):459-480.
March of Dimes (January 2017).
Metz T., and Strickrath, E. (December 2015). Marijuana use in pregnancy and lactation: a review of the evidence.American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 761- 778.
Minnes, S., Lang A., Singer L., (July 2011). Prenatal Tobacco, Marijuana, Stimulant, and Opiate Exposure: Outcomes and Practice Implications.
Addiction Science and Clinical Practice. 6(1): 57-70 PMC3188826 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3188826/
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2017).
The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research. The National Academies Press. Chapter 12: doi: 10.17226/24625.
National Institutes of Health, (December 2013). Tobacco, drug use in pregnancy can double risk of stillbirth.
U.S Department of Health and Human Services. https://www.nichd.nih.gov/news/releases/Pages/121113-stillbirth-drug-use.aspx
National Institute on Drug Abuse (December 2017). Research Reports- Marijuana.
Can marijuana use during and after pregnancy harm the baby? U.S Department of Health and Human Services. https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/marijuana/can-marijuana-use-during-pregnancy-harm-baby
Jacques, et al., (2014). Cannabis, the Pregnant Woman and Her Child: Weeding out the Myths. Journal of Perinatology. 2014, 34: 417
Sonon K, Richardson G., Cornelius J., Kim K., Day N. ( 2015). Prenatal marijuana exposure predicts marijuana use in young adulthood. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 47:10-15. doi:10.1016/j.ntt.2014.11.003
Soberian S. (Nov 2016). Developmental cannabinoid exposure: New perspectives on outcomes and mechanisms. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 2016-11-01, Volume 58, Pages 1-4
Varner, M., Silver, R., Rowland Hogue, C., Willinger, M., Parker, C., et.al. (January 2014).Association between stillbirth and illicit drug use and smoking during pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 123(1), 113-25
Warshak, C., Regan, J. Moore, B., Magner, K., Kritzer, S., Van Hook, J. (2015).Association between marijuana use and adverse obstetrical and neonatal outcomes. Journal of Perinatology. December 2015, 12:991-995.